Understanding Website Performance: Key Elements Explained

When you type in a website address or click on a link, you expect the page to load quickly and smoothly, right? But have you ever wondered what happens behind the scenes to make that possible?

There are several steps your computer takes to bring that webpage to your screen. Let’s dive into the world of website performance and understand why elements like DNS lookup, TCP connection, TLS/SSL handshake, TTFB, and downloading content are so crucial.

What Happens When You Visit a Website?

Imagine you’re sending a letter to a friend. First, you need their address, then you transport the letter, ensure it’s secure, wait for them to read it, and finally, get a response. Visiting a website is like that, but it happens super fast!

DNS Lookup: Finding the Website’s Address

When you want to visit a website, you usually type in a name like “example.com”. But computers don’t understand names; they use numbers called IP addresses. A DNS (Domain Name System) lookup is like looking up a friend’s address in a phonebook to find out where they live.

Why is it important? If the DNS lookup is slow, it’s like having a slow phonebook. It takes longer to find out where the website lives, which means it takes longer for you to start loading the page.

TCP Connection: Starting the Conversation

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is about making a reliable connection. Think of it as dialing your friend’s number and waiting for them to pick up the phone.

Why is it important? If this connection is slow, it’s like if your friend takes a long time to answer the call. You can’t start talking (or in this case, loading the website) until the connection is made.

TLS/SSL Handshake: Securing the Connection

Once you’re connected, you want to make sure no one can listen in on your conversation. A TLS/SSL handshake is like agreeing on a secret code with your friend so no one else can understand what you’re saying.

Why is it important? If the handshake takes a long time, it’s like taking too long to agree on a secret code. It delays when you can start sharing information safely.

TTFB: Waiting for the First Reply

TTFB stands for Time To First Byte. It’s like waiting for your friend to say “hello” back to you. It’s the time from when you ask the website to load until it sends back the first piece of information.

Why is it important? A slow TTFB is like a friend who pauses too long before responding. It means you wait longer before you get any data from the website, which can be frustrating.

Downloading Content: Getting the Full Message

Finally, the website needs to send all the information so you can see the page. This is like your friend telling you a story; you need to hear the whole thing to understand it.

Why is it important? If content downloads slowly, it’s like your friend speaking very slowly. It takes longer to get the whole story (or in this case, to see the complete website).

How Do These Elements Impact Your Experience?

All these steps need to happen quickly for a website to load fast. If any of these steps are slow, it’s like a delay in the conversation with your friend. It can be annoying and might even make you want to hang up (or leave the website).

Why Should Website Owners Care?

Website owners want you to have a great experience. If their website is slow, you might leave and not come back. That’s why they work hard to make each step as fast as possible.

A fast website is like a speedy delivery service. Just as you’d want your packages to arrive quickly, website visitors expect pages to load without delay. Let’s look at how website owners can speed up their websites with some tried-and-true methods.

How Can Website Performance Be Improved?

Optimize DNS Lookups

1. Use a Reliable DNS Provider: Choosing a high-performance DNS provider can ensure quick DNS resolution times. It’s like having a fast and reliable directory assistance service.

2. Reduce DNS Lookups: Minimize the number of different domains referenced on your website. It’s similar to having all your friends in the same neighborhood, reducing the time it takes to visit each one.

3. Implement DNS Prefetching: This technique allows browsers to perform DNS lookups in the background during idle time. It’s like looking up the addresses for several friends at once, so you don’t have to do it when you’re ready to visit.

More detail can be found in our How To Improve DNS Lookup Time article.

Accelerate TCP Connections

1. Use Persistent Connections: Enabling keep-alive ensures that the TCP connection stays open for multiple requests to the same server, like keeping a line open with a friend instead of hanging up and redialing each time you speak.

2. Reduce the Number of Server Requests: By minimizing the number of requests, you decrease the need for multiple connections. It’s like asking your friend all your questions in one phone call instead of several.

More details can be found in our How To Optimize TCP Connection Performance article.

Secure Connections Efficiently with TLS/SSL

1. Use TLS 1.3: The latest version of TLS makes the handshake process more efficient. It’s like having a shortcut to your secret code with a friend.

2. Implement OCSP Stapling: This method allows the server to confirm its SSL certificate’s validity in advance, reducing the time needed for the client to check. Think of it as having pre-verified identification for a faster security check.

Learn more about how to improve TLS/SSL Handshake Time.

Improve TTFB (Time To First Byte)

1. Optimize Server Processing: Use faster servers or optimize your server configuration to handle requests more rapidly. It’s like asking a super-fast thinker to answer your questions.

2. Use a Content Delivery Network (CDN): CDNs store copies of your site at different locations around the world. It’s like having multiple friends who can relay your message quickly, no matter where your other friends are.

3. Enable Caching: Caching stores parts of your site so they can be served instantly, like having answers prepared in advance for questions you know your friend will ask.

Accelerate Download Content

1. Optimize File Sizes: Compress images, minify CSS and JavaScript, and use modern, efficient file formats for images like AVIF or WebP. It’s like making your messages shorter so they take less time to tell.

2. Prioritize Loading of Critical Assets: Ensure important content loads first, like starting a conversation with the most important news.

3. Use Lazy Loading: Load non-critical resources only when they’re needed, similar to not telling a long story until your friend asks for it.

4. Be Mindful: Any performance gains go out the window the moment your start adding dozens of heavy images to your pages without there actually being a real need for them.

General Best Practices

Any and all of the following best practices are going to aid in some way or another to keep the performance of your site in check.

Use a Content Delivery Network (CDN): A CDN can greatly improve your website’s load time by storing your content on servers across the globe. This way, users receive data from the server closest to them, reducing the travel time for data.

We recommend using Cloudflare for your CDN.

Optimize Images and Videos: Large images and videos can slow down your site. Compress them without losing quality to ensure they load faster. Tools like TinyPNG or WebP format for images can help.

Minify Code: Minification is the process of removing unnecessary characters from your code without changing its functionality. Use tools to minify HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to reduce file sizes.

Reduce Redirects: Each redirect creates additional HTTP requests, adding to load time. Keep them to a minimum.

Improve Server Response Time: Look for performance bottlenecks like slow database queries, slow routing, or a lack of adequate memory and address them.

Avoid Excessive DOM Elements: A complex Document Object Model (DOM) can slow down your page. Simplify your site’s structure where possible.


By implementing these techniques, website owners can improve the speed and performance of their sites, leading to happier visitors and potentially better search engine rankings. Using Scanfully’s site performance monitoring lets you stay on top of any positive and negative changes.

Because remember, every second counts. And in the fast-paced digital world, ensuring your website continues to load swiftly is critical to success.

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